File:DeadSeaLevelPEF.JPG|thumb|right|200px|Rock (geology)|Rock used by the PEF to mark the level of the Dead Sea in the beginning of the 20th century
The '''Palestine Exploration Fund''' is a British society often simply known as the '''PEF'''. It was founded in 1865 and is still functioning today. Its initial object was to carry out surveys of the topography and ethnography of History of Palestine#Ottoman era|Ottoman Palestine
with a remit that fell somewhere between an expeditionary survey and military intelligence gathering.
[ Consequently, it had a complex relationship with Corps of Royal Engineers,] [ and its members sent back reports on the need to salvage and modernize the region.] [Ilan Pappé (2004) A history of modern Palestine: one land, two peoples Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55632-5 pp 34-35]